Someone being friendly to you is: Looking out for your interests.
Someone being polite to you is: Obeying social decorum.
People are very often highly polite and highly unfriendly at the same time.
The opposite way is greatly enjoyable and profitable.
That's true to a degree. Rules and laws don't dictate social custom, but they do strongly influence how it evolves over time. Note that it is very much possible to be polite (obey the rules of social decorum) and hostile (act aggressively against somebodies interests) simultaneously. The classic 'polite but strongly worded letter' from a lawyer (or publishing house) being the obvious example.
Tricky. Set the new rules and that's the new polite. Polite is whatever custom a group of people use to be understood and enjoy life together.
You poet, always leaving unfinished sentences and being mysterious, leaving to us the ingos (from the english word "integrate" and the greek word "logos", meaning: filling the blank between what is expressed and what is meant). It's good to know. I'll be more impolite from now on. You can now reference to this comment to know the origin of the word.
What a strong negative connotation! Judging. Judging things, judging people, being judgmental... these are not pleasant things that polite and civilized people do... right?
But if judging is such a fault, perhaps we should learn what exactly it is. Hmm... I don't know exactly. Maybe Merriam-Webster can enlighten us:
Judge. Transititive verb. "to form an opinion about through careful weighing of evidence and testing of premises"
Hmm. That's... not what we expected, now is it? Judging is bad. But forming an opinion through careful weighing of evidence and testing premises... that doesn't sound so bad. Hmm.
What does that sound like to me?
Well, French is such a nice, polite and formal language, that I feel pretty bad because I don't speak it properly. And, I mean, I can be seen as a very rude person just because I get "lost in translation".
When I first learned English, it was really hard to change from my own language the levels of politeness and formality to the English ones... and now, it seems really hard once again, but this time because I have to come back to the formal rules. I don't mean English is not polite/formal, it's just that the "rules of politeness" are different.
In French, as in Spanish, it exists two ways (I would even say three) to talk to someone. If you don't know it, if you are talking with an elder person, if you are talking with your professors, etc. one must talk in a pretty formal way: vous (fr) / usted (es). Even the way you say "hello" changes and the rules, in French at least, are very strict. Instead, if you are talking to someone you know, someone of your age, someone who has allow you to "tutoyer" (fr) / "tutear" (es) them, etc... you say: tu (fr) / tú (es) (the third for me it's the way you chat with your friends). All this is summarized to one single word in English: "you".
Well, you mess things up. You should speak to your professors as "vous" and say "bonjour"... and not say "salut !" ... So, I just mess up everything. I say "vous" to everyone, so my brain doesn't screw things when I talk to elder people. However, if someone talks to me when my brain is in autopilot, I would say "salut, ca va ?" ... And, strict rules would make me look as someone impolite. I'm not, I'm just lost.
Je suis desolée si je vous ai dit "salut !" instead of "Bonjour monsieur/madame".